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To use:


Industrial hemp is mainly used for paper, building materials, textiles and plastics.

Thanks to the high omega-3 content, hemp seeds are used in food and hemp oil from the pressed seeds for cosmetic products.


The history of hemp goes back a long way. Since prehistoric times, hemp has been used in Europe and Asia as a drug, as medicine and as a source of fiber and thus as a raw material, for example for paper production. In the last two millennia, hemp was also able to spread in Africa and found its way into many tribal cultures. After the discovery of America, the colonial powers also brought it to the New World.

It has served as an inspiration for mankind for thousands of years. For many primitive peoples it is still the focus of shamanic rituals and important medicine.

The ban on cannabis that exists almost worldwide today goes back to efforts by the USA in the 1930s. The reasons for this lay in very different motives, but it cannot be determined that objective scientific studies on the dangers of cannabis were decisive for the ban. This ban made not only the possession and use of drugs made from hemp illegal, but also its cultivation. This made the production of medicine from hemp and its use as a source of fiber impossible.

According to current legislation, the consumption of cannabis is prohibited in most countries around the world, but is tolerated in many countries. Hashish and marijuana are still illegal for medical use; In many states, prescription preparations with synthetic or semi-synthetic cannabinoids are in use, but their effects are usually described by consumers as more unpleasant than those of natural cannabis products.

Characteristics and Breeding:

The hemp plant belongs to the family of Cannabaceae (hemp plants, hemp-like), which belongs to the second plant, the hop, which also has psychoactive effects. To date, botanists have not agreed whether there are 3 species of the genus Cannabis, namely Cannabis indica, Cannabis sativa and Cannabis ruderalis, or whether it is a monotypic plant and therefore there is only one cannabis species, namely Cannabis sativa, which can be divided into different subtypes.

Cannabis indica, sativa and ruderalis differ in the following characteristics:

Cannabis indica.

The Indian hemp is a little over 1 meter high and is very branched, which makes its appearance very similar to that of a fir tree. Its leaves are oval and particularly wide. It forms the largest amount of flowers, which contain the largest percentage of psychoactive substances. Distribution: Northern India, Afghanistan, Pakistan and the Himalayan region.

Cannabis sativa - industrial hemp

Cannabis sativa grows up to 5 meters tall. It is very sparsely branched and has the largest leaves of the three species. The individual fingers of the leaves are very long and narrow. Distribution: Cannabis sativa is native to either Central Europe or Central Asia. As a cultural follower of humans, it spread as early as the Neolithic. Today it is very common all over the world. It is not known as a wild plant.

Cannabis ruderalis - ruderal hemp

The ruderal hemp is only about 30 - 60 cm high. It has hardly any branches and only very small leaves. Its inflorescences are the smallest in the hemp family. Its THC content is not particularly high either: while Cannabis sativa contains around 70% of the cannabinoids THC, Cannabis ruderalis has around 40%. Distribution: today from the Caucasus to China on so-called ruderal sites (stony sites), scree fields or rubble areas.

The hemp plant is usually dioecious, meaning there is a male and a female form of the plant. While the female hemp produces flowers rich in resin, the male plant contains hardly any psychoactive substances. If the female flower is pollinated by the pollen from the male flower, a seed is formed which takes about 6 weeks to mature. There are also monoecious cannabis plants, where both male and female flowers are produced by a single plant. Externally, these hermaphrodites look very similar to the female plants. They are not optimal for fiber production, since purely male plants produce significantly better fiber yields.



The dried female flowers are called marijuana. There are many other words for marijuana in user jargon as well. The most common are "grass", "ganja", and "weed". Essential oils contained in the flowers are responsible for the smell. In addition to a good smell, large flowers with as few petals as possible and the absence of seeds are considered quality features.


Hash is the pressed resin of the female plant. The highest quality hash is made by rubbing the resin off the buds with your hands. A dark layer of resin forms on the hand, which is then scraped off and pressed. Soft and easily malleable, it is most commonly referred to as the "black afghan". Sometimes, particularly potent opium-containing hashish strains are also reported. To "sprinkle" the solid mass is heated over a small flame, which softens it and allows it to be crumbled with your fingers. Common terms for hash are "shit" and "dope". Real hash can be recognized by its characteristic resinous smell that develops when it is heated.

 Activities and effects:

The active ingredient tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is primarily responsible for the psychoactive effect of marijuana. However, it is influenced by the other cannabinoids it contains and is therefore only created through the interaction of different substances. Cannabidiol (CBD) in particular plays an important role, as it prevents the effects of THC. It can also have an anxiolytic and pain-relieving effect. Cannabinol (CBN) has a slightly psychoactive effect, but above all it reduces intraocular pressure and is also antibiotic and calming. Cannabichromene (CBC) supports the pain-relieving effect of THC and has a calming effect. There are a large number of other cannabinols, not all of which are structurally and pharmacologically known. Essential oils are also found in leaves and resin. Lignans are contained in the seeds. They have an anti-allergenic effect. 

The effect of cannabis products does not come from the THC alone, as is often assumed. Therefore, depending on the active ingredient content and percentage distribution of the cannabis products, there are different modes of action. Although a cannabis-like high occurs after the consumption of pure THC, it is usually not felt as pleasantly as the high caused by natural cannabis products.

Effect of the main cannabinoids:

- THC:  strongly psychoactive; calming, stimulating, hallucinogenic, relieves nausea, increases pulse rate

- CBN : slightly hallucinogenic, reduces intraocular pressure, antiepileptic, decreases pulse rate

- CBD:  pain-relieving, anxiolytic, slightly calming, reducing intraocular pressure, anti-epileptic, antibiotic

-CBG : slightly psychoactive, sleep-inducing, intraocular pressure-lowering, antibiotic

 pain reliever, soothing, anti-inflammatory

The physiological effect

After smoking, it usually takes a few minutes to a quarter of an hour for the effects to kick in. After 2 to 3 hours it subsides again. When taken orally - for example in the form of biscuits - it takes up to two hours for the effect to occur, depending on how full the stomach is, but an intensive effect can be felt for up to around 8 hours and a certain cannabis effect is often still noticeable the next day .

The breakdown of cannabinoids occurs primarily in the liver. The degradation products are excreted 2/3 through the intestines and 1/3 through the kidneys, where they can still be detected for several weeks.

  The effect on the psyche:

The effects of cannabis do not fall into one of the three broad categories of sedative (calming), stimulant (picking you up) and hallucinogenic, but have a part of each. In addition, the effects of stimulants, hallucinogens and sedatives are intensified, strengthened and supplemented by cannabis.

In general, it can be said that cannabis intensifies perception and, above all, deepens the mood one was in before consumption. However, the intoxication experience can vary greatly, so that the effect is perceived very differently from person to person.

Very well known among cannabis users is the occurrence of cravings, which is partly due to the fact that the taste sensation is usually intensified, so that the enjoyment of well-known foods can suddenly create an unexpected new taste experience.

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